At the end of the examination the committee retires to discuss the outcome in a meeting to which the opponent may also contribute their opinion.
Candidates may initially find this more elaborate examination process daunting, however it is also intended to offer an appropriate climax to the student's endeavour and achievement: allowing them to assert their expertise and prove their qualification in front of an audience of their peers.
The minimum requirement for enrolment in a Swedish Ph. program is a bachelor's degree majoring in an appropriate subject area and including a dedicated independent research component.
However, as in most other countries, an applicable Master's degree is usually also required.
These include media and telecommunications platforms such as Skype and Spotify, as well as the Bluetooth wireless communication standard.
In addition, Swedish universities work closely with business: contributing to the international success of brands and manufacturers such as Volvo, Ikea and H&M.
Applications should generally be made to the institution and department with which a student wishes to study, many of which will advertise their own vacancies for studentships.
Officially certified copies of relevant qualifications will be required and supporting documents such as letters of recommendation may need to undergo a certified translation into Swedish.
In addition to demonstrating requisite qualifications and achievement, prospective candidates may advantage themselves by also undertaking their Master's level study within the Swedish system.All three universities are recognised as centres of excellence in medicine and related fields.In total Sweden offers over fifty universities and university-colleges with exceptionally renowned research output in natural sciences and technology.Many Swedes are fluent English speakers and English is frequently employed as a working language in Swedish businesses and universities.However, universities may offer parts of a course or program in Swedish and encourage candidates to undertake some language training accordingly.